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[2019] Neural bases of the clinical and neurocognitive differences between early and late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

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2020-07-15 10:45
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Kim, Taekwan, Seoyeon Kwak, J. Hur, Junhee Lee, W. Shin, T. Lee, Minah Kim, and Jun Soo Kwon. "Neural bases of the clinical and neurocognitive differences between early and late-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder." J Psychiatr Neurosci 45, no. 1 (2019): 190028.''

Background
Using biological evidence to define subtypes within the heterogeneous population with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is important for improving treatment response. Based on age at onset. OCD can be clustered into 2 groups. each of which is more homogeneous with respoct to clinical and cognitive phenotype. However, the neural bases for these phenotypic differences need to be estabilished to construct evidence-based homogeneous groups.

Methods
We compared brain voulumes, clinical symptoms, and neurocognitive function for 49 people with early-onset OCD and 62 with late-onset OCD (participants in both groups were unmedicated or drug-naive), and 103 healthy controls. We performed regression analyses to examine group X volume interaction effects on clinical outcomes or neurocognitive function in people with OCD.

Results
We observed larger volumes in the precentral. orbiofrontal, middle frontal, and middle temporal gyri in people with early-onset OCD compared to those with late-onset OCD. Poorer visuospatial construction in early-onset OCD was correlated with a larger left middle frontal gyrus volume. Impaired visuospatial memory in people with early-onset OCD and cognitive inflexibility in people with late-onset OCD were correlated with increased and decreased volume in the left middle frontal gyrus, respectively. We found group X volume interactions for obsessive-compulsive symptom scores in the left middle temporal gyrus of people with OCD.

Limitations
Although we divided the subtypes using the commonly adopted criterion of age at onset. this criterion is still somewhat controversial.

Conclusion
We provided the neural bases for clinical and neurocognitive differences to demonstrate that biological evidence underlies the distinctions between early- and late-onset OCD. This study suggests that different treatment options should be considered for the OCD subtypes, because their neurobiology differs and is related to distinct phenotypic profiles.